The Beginning of Normalization Being the Period of Journalist´s Identity Fluctuation-Adaptation, Samizdat and Exile?
|Keywords||normalization, occupation of Czechoslovakia, Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, censorship of journalists|
|Citation||ORSÁG, Petr a KONČELÍK, Jakub. The Beginning of Normalization Being the Period of Journalist´s Identity Fluctuation-Adaptation, Samizdat and Exile?. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae – Historia litterarum. Prague: National Museum, 2010, 55(3-4), 37-41. ISSN 0036-5351. Also available from: https://publikace.nm.cz/en/periodicals/amnphl/55-3-4/the-beginning-of-normalization-being-the-period-of-journalists-identity-fluctuation-adaptation-samizdat-and-exile|
The occupation of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 initiated the period of so-called "nonnalization". This brought with it a new media policy which was at first unsuccessful despite the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia attempts to seize control through renewal of the censorship board as well as legal renewed censorship of journalists. Censors finally obtained an actual influence on media operations as a consequence of massive purges in personnel. Hundreds of rebellious journalists were hereby forced to abandon their reporting profession. The majority of the journalists were forced under pressure to accept institutional supervision and a return to the role of loyal servants of the regime. The remaining minority of journalists who refused to collaborate with the regime often contributed to the development of alternative communication systems which began to affect the information monopoly of the regime; including amongst other things via so-called "Samizdat" periodicals. These were published by not only proscribed journalists and writers but also by musicians, scientists as well as by individuals without previous experience in publishing. The second branch of alternative information space was the exile media which particularly starting at the end of the 1970s (after the emergence of Charter 77) began to intensively cooperate with the domestic opposition and spread uncensored information.