Přehled a srovnání echolokačních a sociálních signálů čtyř evropských druhů netopýrů rodu Pipistrellus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) [Review and comparison of the echolocation and social calls in four European bat species of the genus Pipistrel
This paper summarises acoustic behaviour in four European species of the genus Pipistrellus. Common parameters and sonograms of echolocation and social calls are described and compared with original recordings made mostly in the Czech Republic, additionally also in Germany and Greece. The frequency of maximum energy in echolocation calls, often used in field studies, differs significantly among species. A large overlap in this character was recorded in P. nathusii (x=42.2 kHz) and P. kuhlii (x=40.2 kHz), therefore, field identification should be based rather on social calls emitted during flight. In P. pygmaeus, very low frequencies (51–53 kHz) were often recorded in southern Moravia (Czech Rep.). In mating calls of P. nathusii, the lowest frequency of the component C3 (the third “V-shaped” signal) exhibits the highest interindividual and intraindividual variability and seems to play a role in individual recognition.