Species diversity of small mammals in a highland recreation cottage within 40 years (Rodentia, Eulipotyphla, Chiroptera) [Druhová diverzita drobných savců v horské rekreační chatě během 40 let (Rodentia, Eulipotyphla, Chiroptera)]
Jana Schenková, Jiří Gaisler
In 1969–2012, the following species of small mammals were recorded in a recreation cottage on the ridge of the Orlické hory Mts. (990 m a. s. l.) by trapping, collecting of dead specimens or by other methods: Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arvalis, M. subterraneus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, S. alpinus, Crocidura suaveolens, Myotis mystacinus, M. brandtii, and Eptesicus nilssonii. This sample, excluding bats (n=456), was compared with a sample of rodents and insectivores from the nearby primeval forest of Bukačka from the years 1970–2006 (n=585, 10 species). In the forest sample, synanthropic and hemisynanthropic species M. musculus, R. norvegicus and C. suaveolens were missing but Microtus agrestis and Muscardinus avellanarius were present in addition to the building sample. The Shannon index of species diversity was significantly higher in the forest sample (LME model, F=22.9, p<0.0001). The comparison of yearly totals within the 37 years of coincident monitoring showed a significant correlation of fluctuation in numbers on the two localities studied (GLS model, F=9.556, p=0.004). While Sorex species are the most abundant in the forest sample, the building sample is dominated by Apodemus species. The abundance of Apodemus mice fluctuates during the years, but their total shows conspicuous seasonal dynamics with the maximum immigration in late summer and in autumn. Our results are compared to the series of publications by Porkert & Vlasák (1968–1989) who trapped rodents and insectivores in another building in the Orlické hory Mts. (870 m a. s. l.) and evidenced the impact of temperature and precipitation on the immigration of small mammals, mainly A. flavicollis. During the season, the course of mammal occurrence inside the building was similar as in our case. In the two buildings pooled, 9 rodent, 6 insectivore, 3 bat and one carnivore species were recorded. Differences between the methods of trapping of small mammals in the buildings and in the forest make it impossible to disclose the tendency of various species to immigrate into buildings exactly. However, it seems probable that Apodemus mice and Sorex shrews most tend to immigrate into solitary buildings in highland landscapes.