Savci Národního parku Podyjí [Mammals of the Podyjí National Park]
Petr Benda, Vladimír Hanák, Antonín Reiter, Ján Obuch
The paper summarizes the up/dated information on the occurrence and ecology of mammalsinhabiting the Podyjí National Park (hereafter PNP], a territory of zoogeographic importance, lyingin the region where the northern limit of the Pannonian Lowland meets with the southern slopes of the Boemian Massif near the Czech-Austrian border. Most of the data referred here are the results of a research project carried out in that territory in 1992 through 1997. The territory of the PNP harbours a total of 65 ammal species (i.e. 75% of the total species living in the territory of the Czech Republic). Most of them are autochthonous, seven are succesfully introduced forms. There are 9 species of insectivores, 4 of which are common and widely distributed formsand another 2 (Neomys fodiens and N. anomalus) show insular distribution. Both Crocidura ssp. (Crocidura suaveolens and C. leucodon), recorded in the PNP, are relatively abundant and distributed throughout the territory; the latter species attains here the highest abundance of its whole range in the Czech Republic. Of importance are also recordsof the occurrence of Erinaceus europaeus near the eastern limit of its range in the Czech Republic (in eagle owl pellets). As to bats, evidence has beenobtained of the presence of 17 species (81% of total recorded in the Czech Republic). The abundant and more or less widely distributed bat species include Plecotus auritus, P. austriacus, Myotis daubentoni, M. myotis and Eptesicus serotinus. Relatively common are also Barbastella barbastellus, Nyctalus noctula, Myotis mystacinus, M. brandtii, M. nattereri, Rhinolophus hipposideros and Myotis emarginatus. The latter two are thermophilous elements with markedly limited ranges elsewhere in the Czech Republic. Less abundant and locally distributed in the PNP are Pipistrellus pipistrellus, , Myotis bechsteini and Eptesicus nilssoni. Nyctalus leisleri and Vespertilio murinus have been observed occasionally, the latter only in winter. The richest in bats is the locality called “Ledové sluje” caves near Vranov nad Dyjí, a unique system of non-karstic underground cavities in the wall of the Dyje River canyon. Regular nettings implemented in that locality in 1993–1996 revealed the presence of 16 bat species represented by 8372 individuals. As to carnivores, evidence has been obtained of the occurrence of 12 species, two of which (Nyctereutes procyonoides, Mustela vison) are not autochthonous. Most of the autochthonous species are common forms occuring throughout the territory of the PNP. Lutra lutra was rarely observed, and the present occurrence of Mustela eversmanni is unclear. There are 17 species of rodents (74% of those recorded in the Czech Republic), most of which are common and widely distributed species. Locally, Micromys minutus, Microtus subterraneus and Muscardinus avellanarius occur in the territory of the PNP. In suitable places even Myoxus glis is rather numerous; the species is absent from most of territory of the Czech Republic. Additional dormouse species, occasionally reported in earlier papers as occuring in the territory of the PNP, have not been demonstrated by our investigations and their occurence in the PNP is improbable. Spermophilus citellus, previously common, has apparently disappeared from the territory and even the numbers of Cricetus cricetus are low. the Moravian range of Apodemus microps does not reach beyond the eastern limit of the PNP, and insular occurrence of Microtus agrestis has been evidenced in a number of suitable habitats, which fact has significantly shifted the hitherto reported SE limit of its range in the Czech Republic. The numbers of Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculusin the PNP are relatively low, showing long-term oscilations. As to ungulates, all common species of our game species, incl.Cervus elaphus, occur in the territory of the PNP. The numbers of the introduced species, Ovis aries v. musimon, are rather high and are systematically culled at present. As an exception, there are recordsof the occurrence of introduced or migrating species (Dama dama, Cervus nippon, Rupicapra rupicapra, Alces alces). Reviews of all registered findings, with complete data on the circumstances of the findings, aregiven in the parts concerned with the individual species. The findings are numbered and shown in the species maps accordingly. The general part of the paper contains a fairly detailed synecological evaluation of the basic faunistic data. In an abbreviated from, the results of this evaluation are contained in a more extensive German summary. Moreover, all conclusions resulting from that chapter are documented in diagrams. The paper is concluded by a complete list of localities in which the research was implemented (see Fig. 2), listed according to the numbers denoting the quadrats of the standard mapping KFME 11.2×12 km (Slavík 1971).